Modern medical centers offer patients to get medical advice from doctors of more than 40 specialties. If necessary, experts may even come to your house. Below you can see a list of common medical services offered by modern healthcare centers.
Different types of healthcare services
A therapist is a universal doctor who is a kind of starting point for a diagnostic search for almost every patient. The range of tasks performed by the general practitioner is wider than that of other specialists; therefore, he or she is obliged to have a much more extensive base of knowledge and skills in order to be able to make a correct diagnosis.
A general practitioner gathers information about the patient’s health status (complaints, medical history, life history, chronic illness, burdened heredity); conducts an initial examination using palpation, tapping (percussion), listens to the lungs and heart (auscultation), measures blood pressure, counts the pulse and respiratory rate;
A therapist may prescribe various analyzes to a patient: general blood test, general urinalysis, sugar, cholesterol, creatinine, instrumental studies (fluorography or radiography of the lungs, electrocardiograms, ultrasound examination of various organs, etc.);
The most important duty of a general practitioner is to make a preliminary diagnosis and refer a patient to a specialist if necessary.
It’s necessary to see a general practitioner if you have the following symptoms:
- Sore throat, runny nose, cough, high body temperature;
- General malaise, sleep disturbance;
- Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: pain in the stomach, heartburn, belching, nausea, bloating, constipation or loose stools, etc.;
- Problems with the urinary system: frequent painful urination, pulling pains in the lower abdomen and in the lumbar region, a change in the color and smell of urine, etc.;
- Metabolic disorders: a sharp increase and decrease in weight, dry skin, hair loss, etc .;
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system: shortness of breath when walking, increased blood pressure, increased heart rate of more than 90 beats per minute, pain behind the sternum, etc.;
- Problems with the musculoskeletal system: joint pain, stiffness in the joints, back pain, etc.
You can make an appointment with a therapist if you feel any kind of ailment.
An ophthalmologist is a doctor who treats the eyes, as well as the surrounding tissues: eyelids, lacrimal glands, lacrimal sac, orbits, muscles and nerves of the eye.
An ophthalmologist treats:
- Eye pathology;
- Retinal detachments;
- Pathology of surrounding tissues;
- Tumor of the orbit;
- Orbital injuries.
You should visit an ophthalmologist if you experience any deviations from the normal state, for example, a decrease in visual acuity, redness of the eyes, itching, lacrimation, swelling of the eyes.
An oncologist performs diagnostics and treats diseases, which include various neoplasms and tumors, both benign and malignant.
A specialist in this profile treats benign and malignant neoplasms, as well as complications that occur after the appearance of a tumor.
Possible pathologies include skin melanoma, acute leukemia, soft tissue sarcomas, tumors of the central nervous system, mediastinum, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital system.
Usually, the attending physician refers patients to this specialist if they have the following symptoms:
- Frequent coughing fits for no reason;
- Rises in body temperature for no reason;
- Sudden weight loss of 10-15%;
- Digestive disorders, such as diarrhea, constipation;
- Seals in the mammary glands;
- Frequent bleeding;
- The appearance of skin tumors that are not amenable to prolonged treatment;
- Seals or enlargements in the lymph nodes;
- The appearance of mucus and pus;
- Frequent headaches;
- Pain while swallowing food;
- Worsening of general health;
- Constant pain in the chest, gastrointestinal tract.
Immunology is a science which studies the reactive manifestations of the human body to attempt to invade aggressive alien microorganisms into it.
Immunity is a natural security system that blocks attacks of any foreign origin: viruses, microbes, bacteria, as well as own cells that have undergone mutations (for example, cancerous degeneration). Healthy immunity can and should protect our body from the radiation effects and background radiation of the surrounding electric fields.
Approximately every 4-5th person at least once in a life has come across allergy symptoms. The term “allergy” means the state of acquired hypersensitivity to a variety of substances, allergens. Allergy is manifested in various clinical forms. Allergens can be household and library dust, pollen of flowering plants, nutritional supplements and food, medications, pet hair, mold fungi, parasites, household chemicals, bacteria, viruses.
Allergists-immunologists will help to understand the symptoms of true (genetically caused allergies) and pseudo-allergies.
You should visit such a specialist if you have the following symptoms:
- Frequent sneezing;
- Itchy skin and rash;
- Redness of the skin;
- Chronic runny nose;
- An increase in temperature that does not have a clear cause;
- Lacrimation and redness of the eyes;
- Local edema of soft tissues;
- Fatigue and fatigue;
- Digestive disorders;
- Increased frequency of acute and exacerbation of chronic diseases throughout the year.
A nephrologist is a doctor who diagnoses and treats kidney disease.
Such specialists treat:
- chronic and acute renal failure;
- kidney abnormalities.
You should also see a nephrologist if you have:
- lower back pain;
- frequent urination;
- urinary retention;
- pain when urinating;
- long-term urinary incontinence (enuresis);
- urinary incontinence;
- discoloration and smell of urine;
- swelling of the face, legs;
- violation of the rhythm of urination (frequent or rare urges).
A gastroenterologist is a doctor who is involved in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
A gastroenterologist treats:
- Pathology of the stomach, esophagus and duodenum;
- Pathology of the liver and gall bladder;
- Spleen disease;
- Pathology of the pancreas;
- Pathology of the small and large intestine.
The most common problems are gastritis, pancreatitis, gastric ulcer, cholecystitis, cirrhosis, functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
If you have one of the following symptoms, you must immediately make an appointment with a gastroenterologist:
- Bitter or sour taste in the mouth, belching after eating, bloating, flatulence, halitosis;
- Chronic heartburn;
- Violations of the stool, discoloration and consistency of feces;
- Pain in the abdomen;
- Rashes on the skin, deterioration of the condition of nails, hair;
- Itchy skin;
- Nausea, vomiting;
- Impaired appetite;
- Aversion to certain types of food, change in taste;
- Weight loss;
- Weakness, fatigue;
- Change in skin color (pallor, jaundice;
- Discoloration of urine;
- Changes in laboratory tests.
Dermatology is a field of medicine that studies the structure and functioning of the skin, as well as its appendages: hair and nails, mucous membranes.
A dermatovenerologist treats:
- Scabies, pathogen scabies mite;
- All kinds of fungal infections;
- Pediculosis (lice);
- Non-parasitic origin;
- Purulent lesions;
- Genital herpes;
- Ureaplasma infection;
- Mycoplasma infection;
A dermatologist also removes warts, including plantar, moles, papillomas.
You should visit a dermatologist if you have the following symptoms:
- Spots on the skin of different sizes and colors;
- Cracked skin;
- Itching, burning;
- Vascular “stars”;
- Warts and papillomas;
- Change the shape, size and color of old moles;
- Problems with nails and hair;
- Purulent and other pathological discharge from the genitals.
You should also consult such a specialist after unprotected sexual intercourse.
A mammologist is involved in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases of the mammary glands.
A mammologist treats:
- Mastopathy – seals in the chest;
- Galactorrhea – spontaneous allocation of milk in non-breastfeeding women;
- Gynecomastia – an increase in the mammary glands in men.
- Breast tumors:
- Cancerous tumors;
If you find the following symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor:
- Detection of seals in the gland;
- Painful sensations;
- Asymmetry of the mammary glands;
- Redness of the skin, itching, burning;
- Causeless discharge from the nipples;
- A sharp change in the size of the glands;
- Pain in the armpits.
In addition to the obvious symptoms, it is also necessary to consult a mammologist in the following cases:
- Difficult labor;
- Diseases of the genitourinary system;
- Predisposition to diseases of the mammary glands;
- Menstrual irregularities;
- Hormonal medication;
- Violations of the endocrine system.
Both children and adults face various unpleasant symptoms throughout the year: sore tonsils, stuffy nose, earache. These problems belong to otolaryngology and not only affect one or another organ but also affect the body as a whole.
The reasons to see an otorhinolaryngologist may be completely different:
- maxillary sinus inflammation;
- drug rhinitis;
- polyposis of the nose in which polyps are formed in the nasal cavity that interferes with normal breathing.
Urology is a branch of medicine that studies diseases of the male and female genital and urinary systems. Urology studies not only physiological but also pathological conditions of the urogenital system and is also engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by functional changes and injuries. Currently, a urologist is studying and treating various diseases of the kidneys, urinary tract, bladder, genitals in men and women. Often, treatment requires not only conservative therapy but also surgical intervention.
The most characteristic symptoms of urological diseases (adenoma, prostatitis, cystitis, urolithiasis) are:
- Pain of various localization and strength;
- Frequent urination;
- Blood or pus in the urine.
Traumatology is a branch of medicine that studies the effects on the hum
The main directions of modern traumatology are the study of pathological changes in tissues and organs after injuries, the improvement of conservative and surgical treatment of injuries and the prevention of post-traumatic complications.
As a rule, you need to see a traumatologist if you have:
- Noticeable deviations in gait, muscle tone (muscle tension), posture;
- The curvature of the spine, limbs;
- Flat feet;
- Back and neck pains;
- Impaired mobility of the spine, neck, shoulder and hip joints, burdened by heredity;
- Suffered injuries of the musculoskeletal system.
Rheumatology is a subsection of medicine which is engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases.
Rheumatologists deal mainly with joint problems and closely related problems of connective tissue.
You should visit a rheumatologist if you have:
- Pain and swelling of joints;
- Subcutaneous nodes;
- Mesh pattern on the body;
- Redness and swelling of the auricles;
- Swelling of the temporal arteries;
- Frequent increase in body temperature for no apparent reason;
- Discoloration of the skin of the limbs during cooling or spontaneous;
- Increased coldness of the limbs.
An endocrinologist is a doctor who identifies and treats problems of hormonal origin, helps to balance the work of hormones and metabolism in the body. The task of a qualified doctor includes: to find the most correct and suitable solutions for regulating the hormonal activity of the body, correctly diagnose its work (this includes examination, and laboratory tests and instrumental methods, such as ultrasound) and eliminate the consequences that arise under the action violations.
An endocrinologist treats:
- Diabetes insipidus;
- Endocrine infertility;
- Reproductive system diseases;
- Autoimmune thyroiditis;
- Diffuse and nodular goiter;
- Tumors of the pituitary, adrenal glands;
- Metabolic disorders, overweight;
The specialist’s competence includes pathologies associated with the hypothalamus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal glands, pineal gland, and sexual glands.
You need to see an endocrinologist:
- If you feel a dry mouth, constant thirst, increased urination, poor healing of skin lesions;
- If you have a menstrual cycle, heart palpitations, depression;
- If you began to poorly tolerate heat or cold, your weight jumps for no reason, there are problems with appetite;
- If you find it difficult to concentrate, have frequent nausea and constipation;
- If you sleep poorly, the condition of your nails and hair has worsened;
- You have infertility for unclear reasons;
- If you have persistent bone pain or have broken bones with minor injuries.
Cardiology is a medical specialty and a branch of internal medicine concerned with disorders of the heart.
You should visit a cardiologist if you have:
- Pain and any discomfort in the chest;
- Shortness of breath (increased frequency and depth of breathing, edema, fatigue);
- Various sensations associated with a rapid or irregular heartbeat, rare pulse;
- Poor exercise tolerance;
- Dizziness, loss of consciousness.
A gynecologist is a doctor who specializes in women’s health.
A gynecologist treats:
- All pathologies of the cervix;
- Uterine fibroids;
- Viral infections;
- Sexually transmitted diseases;
- Hormonal disorders;
- Inflammatory diseases of the genitals;
- Ovarian disease;
- Reproductive dysfunction.
A gynecologist conducts an early diagnosis of cancer and precancerous diseases, volume formations, monitors the course and identifies possible pathologies during pregnancy and much more:
- Ultrasound diagnostics;
- Getting and researching smears;
- Radio wave therapy.
In addition, you should see such a doctor if you need:
- A comprehensive program for preparing women for pregnancy;
- Intrauterine device insertion;
- Consultations in the menopause;
- Comprehensive gynecological examinations;
- Advice on the use of combined oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy.
A neurologist is engaged in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases associated with the human nervous system.
A neurologist treats:
- Convulsive conditions;
- Back pain;
- Cerebrovascular disease
- Head and back injuries;
- Parkinson’s disease;
- Alzheimer’s disease;
- Psychogenic autonomic dysfunction.
Make an appointment with a neurologist if you have the following complaints:
- Fainting and loss of consciousness, dizziness;
- Uncontrolled movements, muscle contractions;
- Trembling limbs;
- Speech impairment;
- Double vision;
- Ptosis of the upper eyelid (ptosis);
- Loss of sensation;
- Tingling in arms and legs;
- Cognitive decline;
- Sleep disturbance;
- Chronic back pain
- Muscle weakness.